Oracle SPFILE的恢复方式有哪几种?

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SPFILE的恢复方式有哪几种?

答案:在数据库还没有关闭的情况下,可以使用如下的SQL从内存中恢复数据库的参数:

create spfile from memory;

create spfile='/home/oracle/spfileOCPLHR1.ora' from memory;

create pfile from memory;

create spfile from pfile;

除非必要,应该将以下划线开头的隐含参数删掉:

grep -v '^(_|#).' initlhrdb.ora > initlhrdb.ora2

如果数据库已经关闭,但是存在SPFILE的RMAN备份,那么可以使用如下的方式进行恢复:

l 如果知道数据库的DBID,那么可以按照如下步骤进行恢复:

startup nomount

set dbid 9815108;

restore spfile from autobackup;--已连接到了catalog恢复目录数据库

shutdown immediate

set dbid 9815108;

startup;

l 如果不知道数据库的DBID,那么可以按照如下步骤进行恢复:

① startup nomount;

② restore spfile from '备份文件';

③ shutdown immediate;

④ startup;

l 如果没有关于SPFILE的RMAN备份,那么可以从告警日志中获取数据库启动所需要的参数。



4.5.2 spfile 丢失

4.5.2.1 数据库没有挂掉

create spfile from memory;

create spfile='/home/oracle/spfileOCPLHR1.ora' from memory;

create pfile from memory;

create spfile from pfile;

除非必要,应该将以下划线开头的隐含参数删掉:

grep -v '^(_|#).' initlhrdb.ora > initlhrdb.ora2

4.5.2.2 数据库已经挂掉

一、 从rman的自动备份中找回

如果知道数据库的DBID,那么:

startup nomount

set dbid 9815108;

restore spfile from autobackup;--已连接到了catalog恢复目录数据库

shutdown immediate

set dbid 9815108;

startup;

如果不知道dbid可以这样做:

① startup nomount;

② restore spfile from '备份文件';

③ shutdown immediate;

④ startup;

restore spfile from autobackup; 可以成功的前提是连接到了catalog恢复目录数据库。

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:29:42 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database (not started)

RMAN> startup nomount

startup failed: ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters

LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/dbs/initOCPLHR1.ora'

starting Oracle instance without parameter file for retrieval of spfile

Oracle instance started

Total System Global Area 158662656 bytes

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Fixed Size 2226456 bytes

Variable Size 130025192 bytes

Database Buffers 20971520 bytes

Redo Buffers 5439488 bytes

RMAN> restore spfile from autobackup;

Starting restore at 2018-03-25 20:30:08

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=429 device type=DISK

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 03/25/2018 20:30:08

RMAN-06495: must explicitly specify DBID with SET DBID command

RMAN> SET DBID 2909198110

executing command: SET DBID

RMAN> restore spfile from autobackup;

Starting restore at 2018-03-25 20:30:24

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180325

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180324

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180323

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180322

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180321

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180320

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180319

channel ORA_DISK_1: no AUTOBACKUP in 7 days found

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 03/25/2018 20:30:26

RMAN-06172: no AUTOBACKUP found or specified handle is not a valid copy or piece

RMAN> exit

Recovery Manager complete.

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target / catalog rc_admin/rc_admin@ocplhr2

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:31:23 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DUMMY (not mounted)

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

RMAN-00554: initialization of internal recovery manager package failed

RMAN-04004: error from recovery catalog database: ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target / catalog rc_admin/lhr@ocplhr2

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:31:32 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DUMMY (not mounted)

connected to recovery catalog database

RMAN>

RMAN> restore spfile from autobackup;

Starting restore at 2018-03-25 20:31:38

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=429 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180325

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180324

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180323

channel ORA_DISK_1: looking for AUTOBACKUP on day: 20180322

channel ORA_DISK_1: AUTOBACKUP found: /bak/cf_c-2909198110-20180322-0e.ctl

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring spfile from AUTOBACKUP /bak/cf_c-2909198110-20180322-0e.ctl

channel ORA_DISK_1: SPFILE restore from AUTOBACKUP complete

Finished restore at 2018-03-25 20:31:41

RMAN> exit

Recovery Manager complete.

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ ll

total 9764

-rw-rw---- 1 oracle oinstall 1544 Mar 25 20:29 hc_OCPLHR1.dat

-rw-rw---- 1 oracle oinstall 1544 Mar 22 20:02 hc_OCPLHR2.dat

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 24 Mar 25 20:26 lkDUMMY

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 24 Jan 17 20:08 lkOCPLHR1

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 24 Jan 17 20:16 lkOCPLHR2

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1536 Mar 25 20:09 orapwOCPLHR1

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1536 Jan 17 20:25 orapwOCPLHR2

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 9945088 Mar 22 21:24 snapcf_OCPLHR1.f

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 3584 Mar 25 20:31 spfileOCPLHR1.ora

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 2560 Mar 25 19:54 spfileOCPLHR2.ora

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:32:26 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DUMMY (not mounted)

RMAN> shutdown abort

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

Oracle instance shut down

RMAN> exit

Recovery Manager complete.

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ echo $ORACLE_SID

OCPLHR1

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:32:47 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database (not started)

RMAN> startup

Oracle instance started

database mounted

database opened

Total System Global Area 521936896 bytes

Fixed Size 2229944 bytes

Variable Size 297797960 bytes

Database Buffers 213909504 bytes

Redo Buffers 7999488 bytes

RMAN>

如果不知道dbid可以这样做:

⑤ startup nomount;

⑥ restore spfile from '备份文件';

⑦ shutdown immediate;

⑧ startup;

(一)startup nomount

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:19:00 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database (not started)

RMAN> startup nomount

startup failed: ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters

LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/dbs/initOCPLHR1.ora'

starting Oracle instance without parameter file for retrieval of spfile

Oracle instance started

Total System Global Area 158662656 bytes

Fixed Size 2226456 bytes

Variable Size 130025192 bytes

Database Buffers 20971520 bytes

Redo Buffers 5439488 bytes

RMAN>

[oracle@OCPLHR oracle]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:22:43 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DUMMY (not mounted)

[oracle@OCPLHR ~]$ ps -ef|grep pmon

oracle 13806 1 0 18:07 ? 00:00:00 ora_pmon_OCPLHR2

oracle 15930 1 0 20:19 ? 00:00:00 ora_pmon_OCPLHR1

oracle 15969 15657 0 20:19 pts/0 00:00:00 grep pmon

(二)restore spfile from '备份文件'

[oracle@OCPLHR oracle]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:22:43 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DUMMY (not mounted)

RMAN>

RMAN>

RMAN> restore spfile from '/bak/OCPLHR1/spfile_OCPLHR1x_1ssuevao_1_1_20180322.bak';

Starting restore at 2018-03-25 20:23:55

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=429 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring spfile from AUTOBACKUP /bak/OCPLHR1/spfile_OCPLHR1x_1ssuevao_1_1_20180322.bak

channel ORA_DISK_1: SPFILE restore from AUTOBACKUP complete

Finished restore at 2018-03-25 20:23:57

RMAN> exit

Recovery Manager complete.

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:27:03 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database: DUMMY (not mounted)

RMAN> shutdown abort

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

Oracle instance shut down

RMAN> exit

Recovery Manager complete.

[oracle@OCPLHR dbs]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Mar 25 20:27:12 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

connected to target database (not started)

RMAN> startup nomount

Oracle instance started

Total System Global Area 521936896 bytes

Fixed Size 2229944 bytes

Variable Size 293603656 bytes

Database Buffers 218103808 bytes

Redo Buffers 7999488 bytes

RMAN>

二、 手动创建

手动创建,创建的时候参数的值可以从告警日志中找见。

Starting up:

Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options.

ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1

System name: Linux

Node name: OCPLHR

Release: 2.6.18-194.el5

Version: #1 SMP Tue Mar 16 21:52:39 EDT 2010

Machine: x86_64

VM name: VMWare Version: 6

Using parameter settings in server-side spfile /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/dbs/spfileOCPLHR1.ora

System parameters with non-default values:

processes = 150

sga_max_size = 500M

control_files = "/u01/app/oracle/oradata/OCPLHR1/control01.ctl"

control_files = "/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/OCPLHR1/control02.ctl"

db_block_size = 8192

compatible = "11.2.0.0.0"

log_archiveformat = "%t%s_%r.dbf"

db_recovery_file_dest = "/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area"

db_recovery_file_dest_size= 4122M

undo_tablespace = "UNDOTBS1"

remote_login_passwordfile= "EXCLUSIVE"

db_domain = ""

dispatchers = "(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=OCPLHR1XDB)"

audit_file_dest = "/u01/app/oracle/admin/OCPLHR1/adump"

audit_trail = "DB"

db_name = "OCPLHR1"

open_cursors = 300

diagnostic_dest = "/u01/app/oracle"

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